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April 24, 2011

Mayan Calendar

Humans invented the concept of "time" from the observation of natural phenomena and the movement of celestial bodies and has adapted its activities to these.

The Mayan wise not escape this desire and in the study of numerology and timetable, this being one of the contributions of the Mayan culture to universal culture.

The Mayan wise to realize the existence of an order in the sky meant that it was favored by the gods, the schools were identified with the celestial bodies and natural phenomena; simulant was developing a practical aspect of these observations: the development of systems calendar that would allow an adequate adaptation of the cycles of heaven to their social system.

When did the first time this process? not known exactly, however, has found that several regions of Mesoamerica were especially involved in it.

The Mayan calendar is considering one of the most accurate in the world and to its completion, the Mayan wise use vigesimal system and positions according to which the values ​​are changing from 20 to 20.

The Maya stelae were STONES, HAND MADE PAPER and animal skin.


The Mayans used to represent numbers hieroglyphs and the system of dots and bars: the first each number was represented by a hieroglyph and the second is worth one point, the bar is worth five to zero is a spiral cut or half-flower.

The use of zero represents a breakthrough, for it presupposes a deep understanding of mathematics. This was used by the Mayans 900 years before the Arabs brought it to Europe. The need to measure the cycles for all practical purposes especially for issues related to agriculture, which was the basis of its economy, carries a surprising refinement of what is known as "time", having a calendar is a global need and this aspect of the Maya has emerged: as an example, our calendar accumulates an error of one day for every 4.000 years, whereas the Mayan calendar accumulates one day for every 5.000 years. To measure time, the Mayan wise use three different ways of counting:

First .- They account successive day passed since the start date of your calendar (11 August 3113, BC) which is known as the long count and starts at: zero baktun, zero Katun, zero Tun uinal zero, zero kin.

To bring this account to handle the following values:

Baktun = 144,000 days
Katun = 7,200 days
Tun = 360 days
Uinal = 20 days
Kin = 1 day


In the Popol Vuh Quiche Maya book traces the creation of the cosmos from the victory of the twins and Ixbalanke Hunabpu on the regents of heaven and the underworld, because once the exploit comes Hun-nal-ye (which is the corn god primaveal) from the depths of the underworld, and from this, developers can focus on the task of the last creation: the human and you will print sun and warmth to the world movement.

This is a metaphorical way of expressing the domestication of corn, which results in the beginning of sedentary life and cultural development. This form of expression, demonstrates that the Maya cosmology is essentially an agricultural myth based on the germination of corn and its conversion into food for humans, making it a source of civilized life in which man's creation is an agricultural delivery from the mass of white and yellow maize.

August 11, 3113 A.C. Birth of Hun-nal-e is the start date of the Mayan Long Count calendar, which corresponds to zero Baktun, zero Katun, zero Tun, Uinal zero, zero Kin.

Second .- I used a combination of thirteen cabalistic numbers with 20 figures of the day which gives a value of 13x20 = 260 days. This is the sacred calendar known as the Tzolkin, which was used by priests to make predictions, horoscopes, and religious festivals. Some researchers suggest that this schedule has its origin in Izapan Preclassic center in the state of Chiapas.

On this site, the sun passes the zenith on August 11 and continuing with the current calendar this phenomenon is repeated April 29, if you count the days between these two dates, it gives 260 days is the duration Tzolkin. This system of counting was normal for common people and the names of the 20 days include: Imix, Ik, Akbal, Kan, Chicchan, Cimi, Manik, Lamat, Muluc, Oc, Chuen, Eb, Ben, Ix, Men, Cib, Caban, Edznab Cauac and Ahau.


The start date for the August 11, 3113 BC Is 4 Ahua

Third .- handled a civil calendar called Haab, which had access only the ruling class and was used for astronomy and the agricultural cycles and was made up of 18 months (Uinales) of 20 days each and a month of adjustment 5 days. The names of these months are: Pop, Uo, Zip, Zotz, Tzec, Xul, Yaxkin, Mol, Ch `chen, Yax, Zac, Chen, Mac, Kankin, Muan, Pax, Kayab, Cumku and Uayeb.

The start date for the August 11, 3113 BC is 8 Cumku

To determine the name in one day, the Mayan wise use a combination of these two calendars, so the date August 11, 3113 BC, corresponds to 4 Ahau, 8 Cumku and can only be repeated up to 18.980 days have elapsed is 73 laps of 260 days or 52 laps of 365 days.

At the end of this cycle was celebrated the ceremony of the new fire and towards the renovation of various utensils.

They .- fourth compute spot registration

in short: how to identify the start date of August 11, 3113 BC Baktun zero, zero Katun, zero Uinal, zero kin, 4 Ahau 8 Cumku which is expressed as follows: 4 Ahau 8 Cumku.


Important dates were recorded on stone stelae, handmade paper or deerskin, on top put the sign known as the Alautun introductory within this figure is the patron saint of the month for the civil calendar. Then, the sequence number Baktunes, Katunes, Tunes, and Kines Uinales, then combinations of the sacred calendar and the civil calendar, finally the lunar computation.

They had a linear account within a period of 13 Baktunes or "Era", equivalent to 5,125.3661 years tropics. The period of 13 Baktunes that we have actually started on 11 August 3113 BC and end on December 23, 2012.

Completed the information supporting a chronological data contained on Page 66 of the document Oxkutzcab chronic seventeenth century Yucatan. According to this, on November 3, 1539 (corresponding to 13 November according to the Gregorian correction) were completed 11 and 16 Baktunes Katunes since the start of the Mayan era (1'699, 200 days) and the date of the sacred calendar and schedule civil is 13 Ahau 8 Xul.

The idea of ​​"Age" means that at the end of December 23, 2012, the Mayan date for is 13 Baktun, zero Katun, zero Uinal, Kin zero and has to complete an "Age" or is that 13 is Baktun Baktun equal to zero for the "new era." This means opening a new era in black: Baktun zero, zero Katun, dear Tun, Uinal zero, zero Kin, 3 Cauac, 2 Kankin.

According to reports from researchers, the Maya erected stelae of stone every 5 º 10 and 20, to celebrate a special event.
Today with the help of computers continues to explore the meaning of Maya hieroglyphs having made very good progress with the work of Linda Schelee and Michael Coe.

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